Prion Disease Risk Mismanaged By EPA

Prions From People With Alzheimer’s Disease Unstoppable In Sewage Treatment Process

By Helane Shields,

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) starting raising red flags about prions in sewage sludge back in 2004 when Region 8 ordered that no necropsy labs discharge Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) prion wastes to sewers or septic systems: Recently, Region 8 of the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the issue of laboratory disposal of potentially contaminated wastes in meetings with diagnosticians, state veterinarians, and wastewater managers.

chronic wasting disease CWD

EPA region 8 prepared a draft policy (Discharges of Laboratory Waste to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs); January 10 2003) under the Industrial Pretreatment Program. This region has declared its intention to impose strict controls on the discharge of prion-contaminated materials from veterinary laboratories. In one instance, EPA Region 8 issued a cease-and-desist order to a Colorado Division of Wildlife necropsy facility that was testing deer for CWD.” Prion Wastes To Public Sewers EPA acknowledges sewage treatment concentrates prions in sewage sludge – fecal feces.

“The room in Building 5 where workers perform necropsies has drains on the floor that eventually lead to the Ames sewage treatment plant and then into the South Skunk River. Workers flush tissue scraps, blood, urine and other items down the drain into a heated storage tank and then on to the city sewage plant.”

“Curt McCormick, Pretreatment Coordinator for the US EPA Region 8 (CO, UT, MT, WY, ND & SD) has issued an order prohibiting the discharge of untreated, potentially prion contaminated wastes to POTWs. Calling the issue “critical”, the order states:

“We are currently prohibiting the discharge of untreated, potentially prion contaminated wastes to POTWs. Typical treatment and disinfection processes used by non-domestic users and those at Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) do not deactivate prions. “ “ Prions will pass through the POTW as a pollutant to be received into receiving waters and concentrated in biosolids. Biosolids are the solids produced by POTWs and typically land applied to food and non-food (grazing) crops.” “Potentially prion contaminated waste is considered to be all waste that contains liquid and/or tissue derived from animals, tissue cultures, or other sources that may contain prions associated with Chronic Wasting Disease. Additional controls will be developed and implemented that are specific to wild game processors, taxidermies, landfill leachates, animal feed production, and other indirect dischargers that may discharge potentially prion-contaminated wastes to POTWs.” Survival of prions in sewage treatment and the risks of land spreading prion contaminated sludge:

sewage treatment process disease

My 6/18/08 letter to US EPA and sludge industry calling upon them to end the landspreading of sludge biosolids because of the prion risks: US EPA National Water Research Compendium 2009-2014 lists PRIONS eight times as an emerging contaminant of concern in sewage sludge “biosolids” , water and manure:

With the encouragement of the EPA, 7 million metric tons of sewage sludge biosolids are spread on US cropland and livestock (and deer/wildlife) grazing fields from coast to coast each year. Official US government policy is the disposal of toxic industrial wastes in public sewers . They expected that residential/domestic sewage would dilute the hazardous chemicals and pathogens. But wastewater treatment concentrates the chemicals in the sewage sludge. Pretreatment is no longer strictly enforced for fear of costing industries money and causing loss of jobs. There are 80,000 chemicals in commerce today – the EPA regulates only 9 toxic metals in sludge. The rest are unmonitored, untested, and unregulated. Sludge biosolids is a pathogenic soup of bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms, fungi and prions. Class B sludge undergoes pathogen reduction. Class A sludge is promoted as being pathogen free.

biosolids land application safety

Wastewater treatment does not inactivate infectious human and animal prions in sewage – they are also concentrated in the sewage sludge – both Class A and Class B.

Actually, Class A sludge treatment does not even completely disinfect all pathogens/bacteria – e coli can survive thermal treatment.. ( Peccia, Jordan, Yale, 2012) The EPA and waste industry acknowledge Class A sludge biosolids can be subject to explosive pathogen regrowth. But they still recommend that Class A sludge biosolids containing e. coli and prions, be spread on home vegetable gardens.

Alzheimer's disease diagnosis

Scientists have confirmed Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a transmissible, infectious prion disease. (Jucker, M, 2010; Soto, C. 2011; Prusiner, S. 2012) Each found that IC inoculation of AD into mice brains resulted in the development of prion disease by the mice. There are over 6 million AD patients in the US. The epidemic grows by a new victim every 68 seconds. It would appear, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD) are sister prion diseases frequently misdiagnosed, one for the other, with similar neuropathology, transmissible by aerosols, tainted meat and feed, infectious by medical (scopes, etc.) dental and eye equipment, blood, urine, feces, saliva, mucus. sCJD is AD on fast forward. Between 2 and 25% of AD and senile dementia victims in the US are actually infected with sporadic CJD. (Manuelidis, et al, 1989; Boller, et al, 1989, 1995; Bendixen, 1996; Harrison, 1991; Teixeira, 1995; Warren, et al, 2005).

Recently, scientists including UCSF Nobel Laureate Stanley Prusiner (for his prion research) identified other diseases including Parkinson’s (3 million US victims), Huntington’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis as also being caused by misfolding infectious prions/proteins

“Now he (Dr. Prusiner) concludes, they (prions) are actually capable of multiplying in what he terms “alternative” shapes, with each shape responsible for a different type of dementia. ”

Prusiner prions Nobel Prize

“The brain diseases caused by prions include Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, and other varied disorders known collectively as the frontotemporal dementias,” Prusiner said.

Prion diseases do not affect just the elderly. Dr. David Westaway, Alberta (Canada) Prion Institute has received a $698,400 grant to study whether Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Autism are ALSO prion diseases.

There are over a million US Autism victims. Neuroligin has been identified as the misfolding prion/protein which may cause autism. And the number of victims of early-onset Alzheimers dementia is soaring. This disease is striking tens of thousands of people in their 30s, 40s and 50s. There is a tsunami of prion diseases in the United States. AD and other prion disease victims shed infectious prions in their blood, saliva, mucus, urine and feces. Sewage treatment does NOT inactivate prions. To the contrary, it concentrates the infectious prions in the sewage sludge, including sludge biosolids compost, being applied on home gardens, US cropland, grazing fields and dairy pastures, putting humans, family pets, wildlife (deer, elk, moose) and livestock at risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) and other strains of prion diseases. Livestock and deer ingest soil with their forage, and vegetation uptakes prions.

mad cow disease

“USDA/Agricultural Research Service (ARS) found that 86% of livestock IC inoculated with CWD prions from infected white-tailed deer went on to develop prion disease.

Dr. Adriano Aguzzi of the University Hospital of Zurich: “Further research by the team showed that, if inflammation is induced in any excretory organ of the body, prions are excreted in whatever substance the organ excretes. ”

Prion researcher, Dr. Claudio Soto, states: ” Interestingly, (prions) present in urine maintains its infectious properties. Our data indicate that low quantities of infectious prions are excreted in the urine. These findings suggest that urine is a possible source of prion transmission.”

Prion researcher, Dr. Joel Pedersen, University of Wisconsin, proved sewage treatment does not inactivate prions: “Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most of the agent would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. Land application of biosolids containing prions could represent a route for their unintentional introduction into the environment. Our results argue for excluding inputs of prions to municipal wastewater treatment.” “Prions could end up in wastewater treatment plants via slaughterhouse drains, hunted game cleaned in a sink, or humans with vCJD shedding prions in their urine or faeces,” Pedersen says.

Dr. Pedersen’s article was written before Alzheimer’s was identified as a prion disease and a potential source of prions in public sewers and sludge.) Other potentially prion contaminated animal wastes discharged to sewers in addition to slaughterhouses, include rendering plants. For years, the USDA has claimed there are only about 200,000 downers each year. Actually, renderers process remains of 1.9 million potentially BSE infected downer cows each year.

Other sources include taxidermists, butcher shops, veterinary, necropsy labs. and landfills (where CWD infected and other carcasses are disposed . Most toxic, pathogenic landfill leachates are discharged into sewage treatment plants which produce the sludge). Human sources of prions in sludge, in addition to home toilets, include hospitals, nursing homes, embalmers, morticians, etc. Do all the rendering plants examine the teeth to determine the age, and undertake the costly removal of brain stems, spinal cords, eyes, tonsils, other Specified Risk Materials (SRM) of the 1.9 million downers. Where is the SRM disposed? Incineration? Landfill ? Rendering plant prion wastes can end up in the sewers. Drinking water is at risk for prions if it comes from a surface source (river or lake) which receives treated sewage effluent. Drinking water plant intake pumps are frequently downstream from the sewer discharges. Colloidal particles can carry the prions, and chlorination does not inactivate prions. The water is then delivered to homes and businesses. The US EPA lists prions as a contaminant of concern in sludge, manure and water eight times:

Sewage biosolids containing human and animal prions are topdressed (not incorporated) on grazing ranges, hay fields and dairy pastures where livestock and deer ingest dirt and sludge with their forage. (up to 2.2 lbs a day for cattle). The “prions in sewage” risk assessments done by Yamamoto and Stanfield and Gale are flawed because in each case, the only source of prions they acknowledged were abattoirs. And both mistakenly relied on “incorporation” – discing the sludge into the soil – to dilute the prions. As indicated above, most sludge is topdressed in the US, not incorporated into the soil. And Dr. Pedersen, et als, found that infectivity of prions can increase 680 times in certain soil minerals. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) rejected a request from the cattle industry to use composted “specified risk materials”(SRM)as “fertilizer” SRM are the parts of the cows which must be removed because they are most likely to contain infectious prions): “CFIA Position on the Domestic Use of Composted SRM Issue “Due to concerns about the lack of disposal opportunities for SRM (specified risk materials), the cattle industry is proposing that the CFIA allow domestic use (residential homes and gardens) of composted SRM.” use/eng/1320626671141/1320626734953

“SRM are certain cattle tissues capable of transmitting BSE. There is no human health risk assessment to indicate the absence of human health concerns associated with use of composted SRM domestically. To date, scientific evidence has not been able to demonstrate that composting destroys prions. Although domestic use would pose a negligible risk to livestock, there is a potential risk to humans via direct ingestion of the compost or of compost particles adhered to skin or plant material (e.g. carrots). Another potential route of exposure is by ingestion of prions that have been taken up by plants. It has been proven that bacteria are readily taken up by some plants (e.g. E. coli in lettuce) thus the uptake of prions by plants cannot be precluded or dismissed at this time “ [CFIA claims their actions are “guided by science-based evidence and a commitment to protect public health.” ] [Uptake of sludge biosolids pathogens, prions and pollutants by plants, vegetation, etc.

February, 2011 WEST VIRGINIA WV DNR says chronic wasting disease is spreading. “One is through the transfer of bodily fluids, particularly saliva at places where hunters leave bait. Deer can also pick it up by eating vegetation that contains the infected materials, called prions. Prions are composed of proteins that do the harm to the animal’s brain.”

Further, cervid activity concentrated along fences may lead to accumulation of CWD prions in adjacent soil and vegetation. Wire fences would provide no barrier to wind- borne or water-borne infectious materials, and potentially contaminated vegetation might be available for consumption through fences. Because CWD in farmed cervids has been implicated in contemporaneous outbreaks of CWD in wild populations (Williams et al. 2002), potential for transmission along fences warrants further study.”

Livestock, wildlife/cervids and children eat dirt, increasing the risk of oral infection. Sludge/soil particles may cling to crops, particularly fresh vegetables “fertilized” with Class A sludge/biosolids “compost”. Dust and airborne pathogens blowing off sludged fields may be inhaled and swallowed. Dr. Joel Pedersen, et al, found that prions bind to soil, become 680 times more infectious, and can survive in soil up to three years ( 2007)

Just as prion infected meat caused the mad cow/vCreutzfeldt Jakob outbreak in the UK, – the source of US prion diseases, including the Alzheimer’s epidemic (6 million victims, new case every 69 seconds) may also be bad meat. A major issue is the high level of infectivity of human and animal prions in sludge An infectious dose is believed to be less than .001 gram (one milligram) – but it may be smaller: “DYING FOR A HAMBURGER – MODERN MEAT PROCESSING AND THE EPIDEMIC OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE” – JULY 2005 -Dr. Murray Waldman coroner for the City of Toronto and on staff at University of Toronto and Marjorie Lamb, Toronto, writer, broadcaster, and author of several books. Excerpt: PAGE 143 –

“HOW DANGEROUS ARE PRIONS? “The degree of infectivity in tissues such as brain is staggering. In experimental animals, one gram (about one-thirtieth of an ounce) of brain contains an amount of prions sufficient to infect well over one billion individuals.” Research focusing on inactivation of human prions in sewage sludge biosolids may be inadequate to accurately measure the risks if rodent prions are used instead of actual human prions. What elevated level of infectivity can human sludge prions attain if they are added to soil which increases their infectivity by 680 times, considering that human prions can be also be 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than mouse or hamster prions. (Prusiner, S., DeArmond, S., et als )

The inactivation of prions in brain homogenates and those bound to stainless steel wires was evaluated by using bioassays in transgenic mice. sCJD prions were more than 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than Sc237 prions, demonstrating that inactivation procedures validated on rodent prions cannot be extrapolated to inactivation of human prions.”

Rodent-passaged prion strains are widely used in prion research. While these have been invaluable for understanding prion biology, great care must be taken in extrapolating any characteristics of these prions back to the original species and strain from which they were derived. ‘. We also found that BSE prions are 10- and 1,000,000-fold more resistant to inactivation than sCJD or hamster Sc237 prions, respectively. The hamster Sc237 strain is identical to the 263K strain used by other investigators [27],[28].

Our studies contend that prion inactivation procedures must be validated by bioassays against the prion strain for which they are intended to be used.” “In conclusion, we have quantified the relative resistance to inactivation of four prion strains from different species. Cattle BSE prions appear to be the most resistant strain studied. In comparison, human sCJD prions are approximately 10-fold less resistant to inactivation by SDS at neutral or acidic pH, or by heat alone. Mouse 301V prions are 100- to 1,000-fold less resistant, and hamster Sc237 prions are up to 1,000,000-fold less resistant to inactivation.

As shown by our findings, prion inactivation based on rodent-passaged prion strains may not be effective against the naturally occurring strains for which they were developed

“The human prion is resistant to both heat and chemicals and is reported to be up to a hundred thousand times more difficult to deactivate than the animal form of infective agent which causes well known diseases in cattle, such as mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep. “Dr. Charles Weissmann, et al, Scripps Research Institute, Florida, found that prions are capable of evolution, mutation, adaptive change, including drug resistance, and reproduction.(2009 and 2012)

Considering the vast multiplicity of mammalian prion strains, and considering the heterogeneous mixture of pathogens, chemicals, human and animal prions in sewage sludge, what are the consequences of livestock and deer (cervids) eating the infected soil, sludge and vegetation? Are animals at risk from ingesting human prions? How many have already been infected? It is well known that bacteria and viruses evolve and mutate in sludge and become even more antibiotic resistant. Do human and animal prions mutate in sludge and create more virulent strains ? How many of the 6 million AD victims, not to mention PD, sCJD, FTD and other prion disease victims, were infected by exposure to tainted meat or other sources?

About 10 percent of neurodegenerative diseases are due to heredity. Prion diseases are caused primarily by ingesting the prions – whether from contaminated feed, tainted meat/hamburger or vegetation grown in prion infected soil and/or sludge biosolids. Genetic differences in humans and animals may determine-out of those exposed- who gets infected and who does not. The human pathways of risk are venison from Chronic Wasting Disease infected deer, and hamburger made from aging, asymptomatic dairy cows infected with Bovine Amyloidoic Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) mad cow [Three out of four US mad cows were infected with the “atypical” BASE strain of mad cow.] Old dairy cows are ending up UNTESTED in huge industrial mixing vats of hamburger, each containing meat from 50 to 100 animals from multiple states and two to four countries.

“. . . a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing (in Europe, not US) in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed. Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

“TESTING After the third US mad cow was found, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced in March 2007 it was reducing its national Mad Cow testing and tracking programs by 90 percent. The USDA reduced its cattle-testing level to 40,000 cattle per year down from an average of about 360,000 cattle. Only 5000 “downers” and 3D/4D high risk animals out of the 40,000 total will be tested: “Samples will be collected from renderers and 3D/4D facilities, with a quota set at 5,000 samples’ ]

The remaining 35,000 animals to be tested annually out of the 37 million slaughtered, will be asymptomatic and will not be obviously “high risk”. ] In December, 2011, my granddaughter received her BS from the U/RI College of Nursing, Hannah is now employed as a registered nurse. She has not come across even one medical professional who is familiar with the issue of AD and prions. Are there any special precautions she and others should take in dealing with AD/prion disease patients? Since there can be prions in saliva and mucus which make up coughs and sneezes, and aerosols have been named a prion pathway of risk, are there precautions that should be taken for airborne and droplet exposure ? Should health care publications, including but not limited to the following, be updated to include AD? 11_Human_Prion_Disease_2005.pdf

UCSF Revised 4/01, 9/01, 11/01, 3/02, 5/02, 12/02, 4/04 Infection Control Manual Reviewed 10/05 INFECTION CONTROL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED OR CONFIRMED HUMAN PRION DISEASE (e.g., Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [CJD])* *This is a living document which will be updated as more information becomes known. I. PURPOSE: To define precautions for handling materials from any patient with suspected or confirmed prion disease and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At UCSF, the most commonly-seen human prion diseases include: sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), and Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS).

OPTOMETRY Visual Aspects of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease “However, they may, and have been reported to, cause visual symptoms whilst the possible transfer of prions through optometric procedures has also been the subject of much debate. This article discusses the relevance of prions to optometric practice.”

Should UK Health Protection Agency documents like this one be updated to include AD ?

Nursing Care of the Person With Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Clarissa Rentz MSN, APRN-BC Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing “There is also an in-depth explanation of the sporadic form’s pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features, disease course, infection control guidelines, and treatment, as well as a full discussion of the challenging nursing care issues from diagnosis to death.”

University of California San Francisco Department of Neurology Memory and Aging Center Primer on Human Prion Disease Your patient came to the UCSF Memory and Aging Center website looking for information about Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (CJD), other prion diseases or rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). If your patient exhibits the features of an RPD, here are some helpful points we like to consider when narrowing the diagnosis.

Should medical professionals, including doctors and nurses, be alerted that Alzheimer’s is a transmissible prion disease, and extra precautions should be taken to prevent exposure and infection ? Should a beef or dairy farmer who puts his animals out to graze be warned that the sewage sludge biosolids he is spreading as “fertilizer” may contain infectious human and animal prions ? Should prion researchers offer guidance to the US EPA, the CDC, and USDA about the potential risks to human and animal health from allowing grazing animals to ingest human and animal prions in infected sludge biosolids, and soil containing sludge biosolids? Are humans and animals at risk from ingesting plants, grasses, vegetables fertilized with prion infected sludge biosolids? In the July 3, 2010 issue of VETERINARY RECORD, Dr.Joel Pedersen, University of Wisconsin stated: “Finally, the disposal of sludge was considered to represent the greatest risk of spreading (prion) infectivity to other premises.”

Respectfully submitted, Helane Shields, PO Box 1133, Alton, NH 003809 603-875-3842 ALZHEIMER’S and PRIONS Sewage treatment and composting do not inactivate human and animal prions in sewage sludge “biosolids”: ALZHEIMER’S and PARKINSON’S DISEASES ARE transmissible prion/protein misfolding/conformational disorders — Link to March 2011 update, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) – many descriptions – misfolding prion/protein diseases – conformational disorders – amyloidosis – tauopathy – proteinopathies . . . SCIENTISTS CONFIRM THAT ALZHEIMER’S IS A PRION DISEASE.


JUNE 22, 2012 Nobel Laureate Stanley Prusiner, UCSF, and colleagues, confirm that Alzheimer’s is a transmissible prion disease like Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cows and Creutzfeldt Jakob in humans, which are caused by misfolding proteins.” ALZHEIMERSISAPRIONDISEASE.pdf

EPA NATIONAL WATER RESEARCH COMPENDIUM 2009-2014 lists PRIONS eight times as an EMERGING CONTAMINANT of concern in sewage sludge “biosolids” , water and manure: pdf “PRIONS” ARE PATHOGENS, But the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the waste industry including SYNAGRO, promote Class A sludge “biosolids” compost for spreading on home vegetable gardens, and parks, playgrounds, and ballfields where children with their hand-to-mouth behavior, will be playing. Even though they know Class A sludge “biosolids” contains infectious prions, the EPA/waste industry nevertheless promotes this contaminated waste as being “pathogen free” or “sterile”:

PRIONS IN COMPOSTING Postings of Helane Shields to Composting Council discussion group in 2006 on issue of infectious human and animal prions in both Class A and Class B sewage sludge biosolids, with particular regard to the fact that EPA pathogen reduction measures under Part 503 do NOT inactivate prions . . . . .

“EPA recommends Class A sludge biosolids on home vegetable gardens. Class A sludge is not pathogen free – it can contain E. Coli bacteria which survive thermal sludge treatment – AND it contains infectious human and animal prions which are NOT inactivated by any sewage/sludge treatment.”

“Plants, vegetables, grasses, forages uptake sludge pollutants, pathogens and prions”

Sludge use on food — Smart Guide

Helane Shields Email to US EPA and WEF – human and animal prions in Class A sewage sludge biosolids compost which is promoted for home use as pathogen free

“PRIONS” ARE PATHOGENS — The Prion Diseases Prions in intestines and feces “Human prions in public sewers, autopsies, etc.” “Human prions in public sewers, embalmers, funeral directors, etc. ”

“Young prion disease victims – hunters, venison eaters and others – are they victims of the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) epidemic which is spreading throughout the US? The following states and Canadian provinces are designated CWD positive: Alberta, Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Saskatchewan, Texas and CWD recently jumped the border into Iowa. Alzheimers and Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) are sister prion diseases in humans, just as Mad Cow and Chronic Wasting Disease are in animals. ” ‘SCIENTISTS FIND PRIONS SURVIVE IN SLUDGE “BIOSOLIDS” . . . and PRION INFECTIVITY AMPLIFIED BY SOIL” Persistence of Pathogenic Prion Protein during Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPTSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment.

Inflammation and prions in Urine

Adriano Aguzzi of the University Hospital of Zurich: “Further research by the team showed that, if inflammation is induced in any excretory organ of the body, prions are excreted in whatever substance the organ excretes. ”

Transmission and Detection of Prions in Feces Oral exposure to prion-tainted blood, urine, saliva, and feces has been suggested as the mode of transmission of CWD and scrapie among herbivores susceptible to these prion diseases

Downers — Proportion of Animals Rendered Among Downers and Those That Die Prior to Slaughter excluding calves =1.9 million – USDA claims only 200,000 downers a year – see USDA/APHIS documents revealing 1.9 million downers each year:

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