Proteomics & Alzheimer’s Disease: Radio Interview

Keith & Russ talk with Dr. Oscar Alzate, Senior Director of Proteomics, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso.  Alzate explains proteomics and how proteoms relate to Alzheimer’s.   He also engages Keith & Russ in a conversation about the restrictions of scientific research in America and whether it’s beneficial to the populace.

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Aired Nov. 24, 2013. 

Posted in Research, Sewage, Treatments | Leave a comment

U.S. Finally Strengthens Rules To Slow Mad Cow Disease

Editor’s Note: In my opinion, this is a great step in the right direction, but sound science says that it’s too little too late. The contagion (prions) has already been released from Pandora’s Lunchbox and putting the lid back on will fail to stop the spread of deadly prion disease in people, wildlife and livestock. Yes, according to Nobel-Prize winner Stanley Prusiner, Alzheimer’s is a prion disease just like Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. That means that Alzheimer’s is highly contagious and that patients are infecting their world and our world. Caregivers deserve the truth for safety and to keep others safe. Well-informed doctors don’t want to touch patients with Alzheimer’s or CJD. Why don’t they bother telling others?

Prion pathways extend way beyond the food supply, but all efforts to contain the spread of deadly prions must be aggressive, coordinated and based on sound science–which says that prions can’t be stopped. Prion diseases kill everything in their path. Prion diseases cannot be cured. That’s called sobering science that needs serious action not token gestures.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued new regulations Friday that align the federal protections against mad cow disease with international standards.

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The long-awaited rule, issued by the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), drew praise from lawmakers from both sides of the aisle, who said it would help to open more international markets to U.S. beef products.

The APHIS rule for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, uses internationally accepted trade standards set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Those standards will require APHIS to tailor its import policy for foreign countries on their risk classification, as determined the OIE.

The regulation, which will take effect 90 days after it is published in the Federal Register, also allows APHIS to conduct its own assessments.

“Making these changes will further demonstrate to our trading partners our commitment to international standards and sound science, and we are hopeful it will help open new markets and remove remaining restrictions on U.S. products,” said Dr. John Clifford, APHIS deputy administrator and chief veterinary officer.

Some countries have prohibited imports of U.S. cattle over 30 months old, basing the trade barriers on the absence of a comprehensive regulation hewing to international standards.

Among them is Mexico, traditionally one of the largest export markets for U.S. beef. Sen. Debbie Stabenow, chairwoman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, said the restriction is costing U.S. beef producers $100 million a year.

Stabenow (D-Mich.) said the regulation would help break down crucial trade barriers for American beef.

“Today’s actions will ensure U.S. beef producers can operate on a more level playing field and help grow our agriculture economy,” she said in a statement.

Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa), who had called since at least February of 2012 for the agency to act, also heralded the development. He said the new regulations would strengthen both the American industry’s position and that of the U.S. Trade Representative.

“Beef producers have been waiting years for the Department of Agriculture to issue the BSE comprehensive rule,” Grassley said in a statement. “When nations base their decisions on sound science, more markets will be expanded or opened to U.S. beef.”

Source: http://thehill.com/blogs/regwatch/business/189028-usda-hews-to-international-standards-on-beef-trade

Posted in Chronic Wasting Disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Mad Cow Disease, Prion Disease | Leave a comment

How to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease—A Neurologist Speaks Out About Diet

Nutrition Can Prevent, Treat Alzheimer’s Disease

By Dr. Mercola

Alzheimer’s disease is at epidemic proportions, with 5.4 million Americans—including one in eight people aged 65 and over—living with the disease (40 million people have dementia globally). In the next 20 years, it is projected that Alzheimer’s will affect one in four Americans, rivaling the current prevalence of obesity and diabetes.

There is still no known accepted cure for this devastating disease, and no effective treatments. Alzheimer’s drugs are often of little to no benefit at all, which underscores the importance of prevention throughout your lifetime.

nutrition and Alzheimer's disease

Fortunately, Alzheimer’s prevention is actually easier than you might think. There’s exceptionally compelling research showing that your brain has great plasticity, which you control through your diet and lifestyle choices.

Here, Dr. David Perlmutter—probably the leading natural medicine neurologist in the US, from my perspective—shares his insights into this pervasive problem. I don’t know anyone who exceeds his level of expertise in traditional neurology and still shares the same philosophical orientation that I have.

He has a clinic in Naples, Florida, and he’s been very active in publishing his findings in peer-reviewed medical journals. He’s also a fellow of the American College of Nutrition, as am I.

“I have a very strong background in traditional neurology,” Dr. Perlmutter says. “As a neurologist for many years, I became more and more frustrated with our lack of ability to actually treat diseases. We were really only treating symptoms.

When I finally began to understand what the proximate cause of the various illnesses we were dealing with was, I realized that mainstream neurology, though I don’t want to sound too critical, really pays no attention to the causation part of the story.”

The Role of Grains in Disease Propagation

He realized an answer would never become apparent by simply writing prescriptions and hoping for the best. Instead, he began investigating the role of nutrition on brain health. Alzheimer’s, according to the RAND Corporation, is currently costing us some $200  billion a year, yet it is largely preventable. And virtually no one talks about that!

“This is a disease that is highly revenue-producing for mega factories of various so-called Alzheimer’s drugs,” Dr. Perlmutter says. “The point is there is no meaningful treatment in 2013. It is a disease predicated on lifestyle choices primarily, because of the high amount of carbohydrates/sugar that we now, as Western-culture individuals, are consuming.

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It’s a preventable disease. It surprises me at my core that no one’s talking about the fact that so many of these devastating neurological problems are, in fact, modifiable based upon lifestyle choices.”

Dr. Perlmutter specifically looked at the impact of gluten and casein, or wheat and dairy primarily, on autoimmune diseases. His New York Times Bestseller, Grain Brain, reveals his findings, the cornerstones of which are the powerfully toxic role of glucose (sugar) and carbohydrates in one’s diet.

He also stresses that gluten sensitivity is involved in most chronic disease, including those affecting the brain, because of how gluten affects your immune system. Unfortunately, many people, physicians included, still believe that if you don’t have celiac disease, gluten is fair game and you can eat as much of it as you like.

Full-blown Celiac disease, which is gluten sensitivity affecting your small intestine, affects an estimated 1.8 percent of people in Western cultures. But  gluten sensitivity may actually affect as much as 30 to 40 percent of all people, and according to Dr. Alessio Fasano at Massachusetts General Hospital,virtually all of us are affected to some degree.

This is because we all create something called zonulin in the intestine in response to gluten. This protein, found in wheat, barley and rye, makes your gut more permeable, which allows proteins to get into your bloodstream that would otherwise have been excluded. That then sensitizes your immune system and promotes inflammation and autoimmunity. This kind of gut permeability is also promoted by things like antibiotics and chlorinated water.

The Gut-Brain Connection is Critical to Understand

Once gluten sensitizes your gut, it then becomes more permeable and all manner of previously excluded proteins—including casein and other dairy proteins—have direct access to your bloodstream, thereby challenging your immune system.

“They’ve been talking about it for years and years (which is now just gaining traction in mainstream medicine) that our health really depends on maintaining a barrier of the intestine from the bloodstream,” Dr. Perlmutter says.

“We now understand that the so-called blood-brain barrier, or that barrier that keeps things out of the brain where they don’t belong, is also affected by gluten, according to new research. It’s a very exciting time when we recognize that our biggest exposure to the environment is actually the lining of our intestines – not our lungs, not our skin. We are in fact very much dependent on the microbiota, the bacteria living in the gut, to maintain our health.”

According to Dr. Perlmutter, much of our current disease burden stems from the fact that we are contaminating our immune systems with proteins to which the human immune system has never, in the history of humankind, been previously exposed to. While not discussed in this interview, a MAJOR factor is the development of genetically engineered (GE) grains, which are now pervasive in most processed foods sold in the US. These GE crops create proteins never before encountered in any natural grain or food, so GE grains deliver a double-whammy against your immune system. Food allergies clearly appear to be one of the most noticeable side effects of a GE-grain diet.

“We recognize that food is far more than protein, carbohydrates, fat, and micronutrients, and that food really does represent information. The foods that we consume are instructing our genes. Therefore, that’s a very empowering notion: you can change your genetic destiny based upon the food choices that you make,” Dr. Perlmutter says.

Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride, another neurologist who has also done remarkable work in this area as a result of seeking a solution for her autistic son, came to the same conclusion discussed by Dr. Perlmutter. Essentially, preventing and treating neurological disorders requires severe restriction of gluten and casein. You also need to address your gut flora.

“With specific response to your comments about autism, we do know that some of the milk-related proteins tend to lead to antibody production in the brains of autistic children, blocking what’s called the folate receptor,” Dr. Perlmutter says. “One of the propositions is that there’s this blockage of the ability of folate to get into the brains of certain children, and this leads to all kinds of cognitive and neurocognitive issues.

The State University of New York has actually developed a screen for looking at folate receptor antibodies. We have found that to be actually very helpful… It’s a very exciting time for those of us not just in neurology but in all branches of medicine, who are suddenly realizing that we’ve come full circle. We’re now back to understanding that nutrition plays a pivotal role in the health of humans.”

Avoiding Dairy Does NOT Include Avoiding Dairy Fats

I believe it would be wise for most people to avoid pasteurized dairy (primarily casein but also other proteins) and gluten. That said, there are subgroups of people who are particularly prone to harm from these proteins, and as a rule must avoid them in order to maintain their health. Bear in mind that dairy fat like butter, which has virtually no protein, is not problematic and can be consumed even by those who are sensitive to milk proteins. As stated by Dr. Perlmutter:

“We need to eat fat. We’re suggesting a revolutionary dietary change, telling people they should go on this new diet—which is only the diet humans have eaten for the past 2.6 million years! We’ve always eaten fat. Fat is the most wonderful health-providing food that we can obtain in the human diet. Of course, we have to qualify that with what typeof fat you are eating.”

Beneficial health-promoting fats that your body—and your brain in particular—needs for optimal function include organic butter from raw milk, clarified butter called organic grass fed raw butter, olives, organic virgin olive oil and coconut oil, nuts like pecans and macadamia, free-range eggs, wild Alaskan salmon, and avocado, for example.

According to Dr. Perlmutter, our current dietary fat phobia “has absolutely been the cornerstone of our most common degenerative diseases of the day, including Alzheimer’s.” Why? Because when you cut dietary fat and keep protein about the same, you’re going to fill in the gaps with health-harming carbohydrate foods, predominantly grains.

“This whole grain goodness, as the US Department of Agriculture is trying to convince us we should focus on in terms of our dietary choices, is the cornerstone of our most devastating diseases. I mean, brain diseases like Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, and obviously, what leads to them, diabetes, which is so prevalent in Western societies. Again, it’s the getting away from fat and the substitution with wheat- and corn-based carbohydrate (high-fructose corn syrup) that really, in my opinion, explains this huge explosion of degenerative conditions that are crippling us medically and crippling us economically as well,” he says.

“But the quality of the fat that we consume is absolutely fundamental. When we’re saying high-fat diet, we’re not talking about prepared foods on the Twinkie aisle at the grocery store that contain modified trans fats; hydrogenated fats that are clearly coffin nails. They’re a great risk for brain disorders, heart disorders, diabetes, etc. We’re talking about these beautiful, natural fats that we have been consuming for more than two million years.”

Recommended Tests to Evaluate Disease Risks

There are specific tests that can help you determine your level of sensitivity to dairy proteins like casein, as well as gluten. The most effective test for gluten sensitivity, according to Dr. Perlmutter, is a test called the Cyrex Array 3 test. Most laboratories, when you order a test for either gluten sensitivity or celiac disease specifically, will look for antibodies against just one type of gliadin. However, there are dozens of different types of gliadin that can incite immune reaction or immune reactivity. The Cyrex test looks at 24 different parameters of gluten sensitivity, which gives you a much clearer picture.

“Most commonly when I’m seeing patients, they’ve already had some form of preliminary gluten sensitivity test which was negative, and we find [out the truth] by doing the Cyrex test,” he says.

The same lab offers another test, Cyrex Array 4, which looks at cross-sensitivity in people who are gluten-sensitive. This test includes a dairy product panel as well as amaranth, spelt, quinoa, rice, coffee, chocolate, and other foods that may be cross-reactive with respect to gliadin. Two other tests recommended by Dr. Perlmutter that are potent predictors of Alzheimer’s disease specifically are:

  • Fasting blood sugar, as this is a powerful predictor of your risk for Alzheimer’s disease. In this interview, he discusses research showing a very direct correlation between your fasting blood sugar and the rate at which your brain shrinks.  The higher your fasting blood sugar, the greater your risk. Interestingly, brain shrinkage occurs at blood sugar levels that are currently considered within the normal range (90-100), and even small elevations of blood sugar directly correlate to increased risk for having shrinkage of your hippocampus, your memory center, which is the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Hemoglobin A1c. This is a marker of your average blood sugar over about a three-to four-month period of time. Again, there’s a striking correlation between hemoglobin A1c and the rate at which your brain is shrinking.

Both of these factors, your blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c, are entirely within your power to control, as they respond to dietary changes. Quite simply, you lower them by reducing your carbohydrate consumption. As stated by Dr. Perlmutter:

“You can absolutely control your blood sugar. It’s a lifestyle choice. Do you eat grain? Do you drink orange juice in the morning? Are you having cereal in the morning? Have you decided to go low-carb and high-fat? In the latter case, your hemoglobin A1c will come down, your fasting blood sugar will come down, and lo and behold, you have taken positive steps to reduce your risk of brain shrinkage.”

How the Science of Neuroplasticity Changes the Game

It’s important to realize that, despite what the media tells you, your brain is not “programmed” to shrink and fail as a matter of course as you age. We now know that every activity in which you engage—be it exercise, the foods you eat, the supplements you take, your personal relationships, your emotional state, your sleep patterns—all of these factors dramatically influence your genetic expression from moment to moment. Any given gene is not in a static “on” or “off” position. Neither are they deterministic. You may be a carrier of a gene that never gets expressed, simply because you never supply the required environment for it to turn on.

“We interact with our genome every moment of our lives, and we can do so very, very positively,” Dr. Perlmutter says. “Keeping your blood sugar low is very positive in terms of allowing the genes to express reduced inflammation, which increase the production of life-giving antioxidants. So that’s rule number one: You can change your genetic destiny.

Rule number two: you can change your genetic destiny to grow new brain cells, specifically in the hippocampus… Your brain’s memory center regenerates. You are constantly growing new brain cells into your 50s, 60s, 80s, and 90s – throughout your lifetime – through a process called neurogenesis.

That said, these two ideas come together because you can turn on your genes through lifestyle choices that enhance neurogenesis and that enhance regrowth of cells and expansion of your brain’s memory center. This was proven by researchers recently. They demonstrated that there are factors under our control that can make that happen.”

Lifestyle strategies that promote neurogenesis and regrowth of brain cells include the following. All of these strategies target a specific gene pathway called BDNF or brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes brain cell growth and connectivity as demonstrated on MRI scans.

  • Exercise. In one year-long study, individuals who engaged in exercise were actually growing and expanding the brain’s memory center one to two percent per year, where typically that center would have continued to decline in size.
  • Reducing overall calorie consumption
  • Reducing carbohydrate consumption
  • Increasing healthy fat consumption
  • Increasing your omega-3 fat intake and reducing consumption of damaged omega-6 fats (think processed vegetable oils) in order to balance your omega-3 to omega-6 ratio. I prefer krill oil to fish oil here, as krill oil also contains astaxanthin, which appears to be particularly beneficial for brain health. As explained by Dr. Perlmutter, it belongs to the class of carotenoids, and is very “focused” on reducing free radical-mediated damage to fat, and your brain is 60 or 70 percent fat

The Importance of Vitamin D and Cholesterol for Brain Health

Vitamin D also plays a fundamental role in brain health, immune function, and inflammation. According to Dr. Perlmutter, vitamin D influences the expression of more than 913 genes. Sadly, a vast majority of people are dramatically deficient in this critical steroid hormone, in large part because they’ve been fooled into fearing sun exposure. You’ve also been deceived into fearing cholesterol, which is another critical component of health.

“Obviously, sunshine makes vitamin D in your body from some precursor. When I ask my patients what is that precursor, nobody seems to know. I tell them it’s this horrible thing called cholesterol, and their eyebrows go up,” he says.“Cholesterol is so drastically important for health, because (1) it’s the precursor for which you make vitamin D and (2) it’s a fundamental compound of every cell in your body and made by every cell in your body. It’s a brain antioxidant. It’s a precursor for all the steroid sex hormones – it’s fundamentally important.”

According to Dr. Perlmutter, research shows that elderly individuals with the lowest cholesterol levels have the highest risk for Alzheimer’s. They also have the highest risk for dying. As he says, the war on cholesterol is fundamentally inappropriate and harmful.

“I say to my audiences very frequently, “If cholesterol is so bad, what you’re saying is that if you believe in evolution or if you believe in creation – either way – either nature got it wrong or God got it wrong by putting the ability to make cholesterol in every one of our cells. Why would that be a mistake?”

It’s not a mistake. We are desperate for cholesterol. It’s a fundamental player in every cell membrane. We’ve been on a high-cholesterol diet for millions of years, and it has served us well. In fact, our genome has been selected based upon that diet, being on a high-cholesterol diet – eating eggs, animal fat, and animal protein.”

The Benefits of Fasting

Dr. Perlmutter places most of his patients on a ketogenic, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that is gluten-free, along with prescribed aerobic exercise. Certain supplements may also be used, especially if the patient is vitamin D deficient or has any other critical deficiency.

I’ve previously interviewed Dr. Seyfried, who is a researcher at Boston University and connected with Harvard. He was one of the leading investigators to adopt the ketogenic diet for a neurological condition, the treatment of seizures, and then from there started investigating its use for treatment of cancer. Another PhD, Dr. D’Agostino in Florida, is also doing similar work in this area.

It’s interesting to note that it all stemmed from the treatment of intractable seizure disorders; before they realized that it was also a potent treatment adjunct for cancer patients. Most interestingly, cancer cells do not have the ability to any significant degree to metabolize fat and are almost completely dependent on metabolizing sugar. When you go on a ketogenic diet, you effectively deprive the cancer cells of sugar, which starves them, while allowing normal cells to thrive. Beyond that, you also need to recognize that the balance of organisms in your intestine play a critical role in maintaining your immunity. Clearly, if you’re fighting disease of any kind, you want your immune system to function optimally.

“When you damage your microbiom, the balance of bacteria, in your gut by taking chemotherapy, at the very least add in an aggressive probiotic approach to keep bad bacteria count healthy,” Dr. Perlmutter says.

I’m particularly fond of using fermented vegetables, because they can deliver extraordinarily high levels of beneficial bacteria. Most people aren’t aware that in a healthy serving of sauerkraut – two to three ounces or so – you’re getting the equivalent of nearly 100 capsules of the highest-potency probiotic you can buy. It’s clearly one of the most cost-effective alternatives. Furthermore, if it’s fermented with a starter culture, which we’re going to be offering soon, you can also get very high levels of vitamin K2, which is crucial to balance vitamin D.

Dr. Perlmutter also highly recommends fasting. Contrary to popular belief, the ideal fuel for your brain is not glucose but ketones, which is the fat that your body mobilizes when you stop feeding it carbs and introduce coconut oil and other sources of healthy fats into your diet. A one-day fast can help your body to “reset” itself, and start to burn fat instead of sugar. As part of a healthy lifestyle, I prefer an intermittent fasting schedule that simply calls for limiting your eating to a narrower window of time each day. By restricting your eating to a 6-8 hour window, you effectively fast 16-18 hours each day. To learn more, please see this previous article.

“The easiest way to become ketotic is just to stop eating. Because if you go through your sugar stores and then your glycogen stores relatively soon, you begin to burn fat, the most incredibly powerful source of fuel for human physiology and especially for the brain,” he says.

More Information:

To learn more, I highly recommend Dr. Perlmutter’s New York Times Best Selling book, Grain Brain. You can also find more information on his web site, DrPerlmutter.com. You can also find more tips and guidelines in this previous article on Alzheimer’s prevention.

“These changes that people can make in their diets are not draconian,” he says. “The only thing that makes it difficult is because of what we are told by society we should be eating. Those statements are not given to us with good, sound scientific backing. Again, these are simple but profound choices that people can make.”

I couldn’t agree more. Applying the strategies discussed in this interview and article can dramatically reduce your risk of succumbing to Alzheimer’s and other chronic diseases. Overall, it will also raise your general quality of life. Clearly, prevention is much easier than treating it after the fact. And even though there is this element of neuroplasticity, it’s far better to prevent brain degeneration to begin with. As Dr. Perlutter says:

“The time to fix the roof is when the sun is shining. That’s the segment of the population I really want to target – people who have not yet had cognitive issues but are at risk, which is basically all of us. In fact, this is the time to make the changes – while you’re still healthy. Time to cut back on the carbohydrates, increase your consumption of good fats, get out and exercise… these are the fundamentals that could keep these problems from happening in the first place.”

Source: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/09/29/dr-perlmutter-gluten.aspx

Posted in Causes, Diet, Grain Brain, Treatments | Leave a comment

Stress in Midlife Linked to Higher Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

By Makiko Kitamura

Stress in middle age may contribute to development of Alzheimer’s disease later in life, according to a Swedish study spanning almost 40 years.

imagesPsychological stress was associated with a 21 percent greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study of 800 Swedish women born between 1914 and 1930 who underwent neuropsychiatric tests periodically between 1968 and 2005. The research, led by Lena Johansson at the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg was published today in the journal BMJ Open.

“This suggests that common psychosocial stressors may have severe and long-standing physiological and psychological consequences,” the authors said in the published paper.

The research points to a potential non-medical approach to preventing some cases of dementia, which afflicts at least 35.6 million people globally, according to the Geneva-based World Health Organization. No drugs on the market have been shown to slow progression of the disease. While more studies are needed to confirm the results, interventions such as stress management and behavioral therapy should be investigated, the authors said.

During the monitoring period, 153 women, about a fifth of the total, developed dementia, diagnosed at the average age of 78. About half the women died, at the average age of 79.

Biological Mechanisms

A quarter of the women reported at least one stressor, with mental illness in a family member the most common. The link between psychological stressors and dementia can be explained through a variety of biological mechanisms, such as causing structural and functional damage to the hippocampus, which plays a role in memory and spatial navigation, as well as increasing build-up of beta amyloid plaque and tau protein, typical signs of Alzheimer’s, according to the study’s authors.

“From this study, it is hard to know whether stress contributes directly to the development of dementia, whether it is purely an indicator of another underlying risk in this population of women, or whether the link is due to any entirely different factor,” said Simon Ridley, head of research at Alzheimer’s Research U.K., a Cambridge-based charity.

“An important next step will be to investigate the potential reasons for the observed association between midlife stress and dementia risk.”

The research was funded by organizations including the Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research and the U.S. National Institutes on Aging.

Source: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-09-30/stress-in-midlife-linked-to-higher-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease.html

Posted in Caregivers, Causes, Symptoms, Treatments | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Prion Disease Risk Mismanaged By EPA

Prions From People With Alzheimer’s Disease Unstoppable In Sewage Treatment Process

By Helane Shields, hshields@tds.net

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) starting raising red flags about prions in sewage sludge back in 2004 when Region 8 ordered that no necropsy labs discharge Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) prion wastes to sewers or septic systems: Recently, Region 8 of the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the issue of laboratory disposal of potentially contaminated wastes in meetings with diagnosticians, state veterinarians, and wastewater managers.

chronic wasting disease CWD

EPA region 8 prepared a draft policy (Discharges of Laboratory Waste to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs); January 10 2003) under the Industrial Pretreatment Program. This region has declared its intention to impose strict controls on the discharge of prion-contaminated materials from veterinary laboratories. In one instance, EPA Region 8 issued a cease-and-desist order to a Colorado Division of Wildlife necropsy facility that was testing deer for CWD.” Prion Wastes To Public Sewers EPA acknowledges sewage treatment concentrates prions in sewage sludge – fecal feces.

“The room in Building 5 where workers perform necropsies has drains on the floor that eventually lead to the Ames sewage treatment plant and then into the South Skunk River. Workers flush tissue scraps, blood, urine and other items down the drain into a heated storage tank and then on to the city sewage plant.” http://rense.com/general72/waste.htm

“Curt McCormick, Pretreatment Coordinator for the US EPA Region 8 (CO, UT, MT, WY, ND & SD) has issued an order prohibiting the discharge of untreated, potentially prion contaminated wastes to POTWs. Calling the issue “critical”, the order states:

“We are currently prohibiting the discharge of untreated, potentially prion contaminated wastes to POTWs. Typical treatment and disinfection processes used by non-domestic users and those at Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) do not deactivate prions. “ “ Prions will pass through the POTW as a pollutant to be received into receiving waters and concentrated in biosolids. Biosolids are the solids produced by POTWs and typically land applied to food and non-food (grazing) crops.” “Potentially prion contaminated waste is considered to be all waste that contains liquid and/or tissue derived from animals, tissue cultures, or other sources that may contain prions associated with Chronic Wasting Disease. Additional controls will be developed and implemented that are specific to wild game processors, taxidermies, landfill leachates, animal feed production, and other indirect dischargers that may discharge potentially prion-contaminated wastes to POTWs.” Survival of prions in sewage treatment and the risks of land spreading prion contaminated sludge: http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/PRIONS-SEWAGETREATMENT.pdf

sewage treatment process disease

My 6/18/08 letter to US EPA and sludge industry calling upon them to end the landspreading of sludge biosolids because of the prion risks: http://sludgevictims.com/prions-human-EPA-letter.html US EPA National Water Research Compendium 2009-2014 lists PRIONS eight times as an emerging contaminant of concern in sewage sludge “biosolids” , water and manure: http://www.sludgevictims.com/prions/PRIONS-EPA-EMERGINGCONTAMINANTSINSLUDGEBIO.pdf

With the encouragement of the EPA, 7 million metric tons of sewage sludge biosolids are spread on US cropland and livestock (and deer/wildlife) grazing fields from coast to coast each year. Official US government policy is the disposal of toxic industrial wastes in public sewers . They expected that residential/domestic sewage would dilute the hazardous chemicals and pathogens. But wastewater treatment concentrates the chemicals in the sewage sludge. Pretreatment is no longer strictly enforced for fear of costing industries money and causing loss of jobs. There are 80,000 chemicals in commerce today – the EPA regulates only 9 toxic metals in sludge. The rest are unmonitored, untested, and unregulated. Sludge biosolids is a pathogenic soup of bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms, fungi and prions. Class B sludge undergoes pathogen reduction. Class A sludge is promoted as being pathogen free. http://sludgevictims.com/prions-are-pathogens.html

biosolids land application safety

Wastewater treatment does not inactivate infectious human and animal prions in sewage – they are also concentrated in the sewage sludge – both Class A and Class B. http://sludgevictims.com/pdf_files/PRIONSINSEWAGEANDSLUDGE_PEDERSEN_ETAL.pdf

Actually, Class A sludge treatment does not even completely disinfect all pathogens/bacteria – e coli can survive thermal treatment.. ( Peccia, Jordan, Yale, 2012) The EPA and waste industry acknowledge Class A sludge biosolids can be subject to explosive pathogen regrowth. But they still recommend that Class A sludge biosolids containing e. coli and prions, be spread on home vegetable gardens. http://www.alzheimersprions.com/pdf/VEGETABLECLASSASLUDGE.pdf

Alzheimer's disease diagnosis

Scientists have confirmed Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a transmissible, infectious prion disease. (Jucker, M, 2010; Soto, C. 2011; Prusiner, S. 2012) Each found that IC inoculation of AD into mice brains resulted in the development of prion disease by the mice. There are over 6 million AD patients in the US. The epidemic grows by a new victim every 68 seconds. It would appear, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD) are sister prion diseases frequently misdiagnosed, one for the other, with similar neuropathology, transmissible by aerosols, tainted meat and feed, infectious by medical (scopes, etc.) dental and eye equipment, blood, urine, feces, saliva, mucus. sCJD is AD on fast forward. Between 2 and 25% of AD and senile dementia victims in the US are actually infected with sporadic CJD. (Manuelidis, et al, 1989; Boller, et al, 1989, 1995; Bendixen, 1996; Harrison, 1991; Teixeira, 1995; Warren, et al, 2005).

Recently, scientists including UCSF Nobel Laureate Stanley Prusiner (for his prion research) identified other diseases including Parkinson’s (3 million US victims), Huntington’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis as also being caused by misfolding infectious prions/proteins http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/JUNE2012PRUSINER-ETAL-ALZHEIMERSISAPRIONDISEASE.pdf

“Now he (Dr. Prusiner) concludes, they (prions) are actually capable of multiplying in what he terms “alternative” shapes, with each shape responsible for a different type of dementia. ”

Prusiner prions Nobel Prize

“The brain diseases caused by prions include Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, and other varied disorders known collectively as the frontotemporal dementias,” Prusiner said.  http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2012/06/21/MNC21P5A6F.DTL

Prion diseases do not affect just the elderly. Dr. David Westaway, Alberta (Canada) Prion Institute has received a $698,400 grant to study whether Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Autism are ALSO prion diseases. http://www.prioninstitute.ca/index.php?page=webpages&menucat=42&id=26&action=displaypage&side=1

There are over a million US Autism victims. Neuroligin has been identified as the misfolding prion/protein which may cause autism. And the number of victims of early-onset Alzheimers dementia is soaring. This disease is striking tens of thousands of people in their 30s, 40s and 50s. There is a tsunami of prion diseases in the United States. AD and other prion disease victims shed infectious prions in their blood, saliva, mucus, urine and feces. Sewage treatment does NOT inactivate prions. To the contrary, it concentrates the infectious prions in the sewage sludge, including sludge biosolids compost, being applied on home gardens, US cropland, grazing fields and dairy pastures, putting humans, family pets, wildlife (deer, elk, moose) and livestock at risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) and other strains of prion diseases. Livestock and deer ingest soil with their forage, and vegetation uptakes prions.

mad cow disease

“USDA/Agricultural Research Service (ARS) found that 86% of livestock IC inoculated with CWD prions from infected white-tailed deer went on to develop prion disease. http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=277212

Dr. Adriano Aguzzi of the University Hospital of Zurich: “Further research by the team showed that, if inflammation is induced in any excretory organ of the body, prions are excreted in whatever substance the organ excretes. ” http://sludgevictims.com/pdf_files/PRIONSINURINE.pdf http://sludgevictims.com/pdf_files/PRIONSINFECES.pdf

Prion researcher, Dr. Claudio Soto, states: ” Interestingly, (prions) present in urine maintains its infectious properties. Our data indicate that low quantities of infectious prions are excreted in the urine. These findings suggest that urine is a possible source of prion transmission.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2593137/

Prion researcher, Dr. Joel Pedersen, University of Wisconsin, proved sewage treatment does not inactivate prions: “Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most of the agent would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. Land application of biosolids containing prions could represent a route for their unintentional introduction into the environment. Our results argue for excluding inputs of prions to municipal wastewater treatment.” “Prions could end up in wastewater treatment plants via slaughterhouse drains, hunted game cleaned in a sink, or humans with vCJD shedding prions in their urine or faeces,” Pedersen says. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1021/es703186e

Dr. Pedersen’s article was written before Alzheimer’s was identified as a prion disease and a potential source of prions in public sewers and sludge.) Other potentially prion contaminated animal wastes discharged to sewers in addition to slaughterhouses, include rendering plants. For years, the USDA has claimed there are only about 200,000 downers each year. Actually, renderers process remains of 1.9 million potentially BSE infected downer cows each year. http://sludgevictims.com/prions/USDAAPHISSCANNUMBEROFDOWNERS.pdf

Other sources include taxidermists, butcher shops, veterinary, necropsy labs. and landfills (where CWD infected and other carcasses are disposed . Most toxic, pathogenic landfill leachates are discharged into sewage treatment plants which produce the sludge). Human sources of prions in sludge, in addition to home toilets, include hospitals, nursing homes, embalmers, morticians, etc. Do all the rendering plants examine the teeth to determine the age, and undertake the costly removal of brain stems, spinal cords, eyes, tonsils, other Specified Risk Materials (SRM) of the 1.9 million downers. Where is the SRM disposed? Incineration? Landfill ? Rendering plant prion wastes can end up in the sewers. Drinking water is at risk for prions if it comes from a surface source (river or lake) which receives treated sewage effluent. Drinking water plant intake pumps are frequently downstream from the sewer discharges. Colloidal particles can carry the prions, and chlorination does not inactivate prions. The water is then delivered to homes and businesses. The US EPA lists prions as a contaminant of concern in sludge, manure and water eight times: http://www.sludgevictims.com/prions/PRIONS-EPA-EMERGINGCONTAMINANTSINSLUDGEBIO.pdf

Sewage biosolids containing human and animal prions are topdressed (not incorporated) on grazing ranges, hay fields and dairy pastures where livestock and deer ingest dirt and sludge with their forage. (up to 2.2 lbs a day for cattle). The “prions in sewage” risk assessments done by Yamamoto and Stanfield and Gale are flawed because in each case, the only source of prions they acknowledged were abattoirs. And both mistakenly relied on “incorporation” – discing the sludge into the soil – to dilute the prions. As indicated above, most sludge is topdressed in the US, not incorporated into the soil. And Dr. Pedersen, et als, found that infectivity of prions can increase 680 times in certain soil minerals. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) rejected a request from the cattle industry to use composted “specified risk materials”(SRM)as “fertilizer” SRM are the parts of the cows which must be removed because they are most likely to contain infectious prions): “CFIA Position on the Domestic Use of Composted SRM Issue “Due to concerns about the lack of disposal opportunities for SRM (specified risk materials), the cattle industry is proposing that the CFIA allow domestic use (residential homes and gardens) of composted SRM.” http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/fertilizers/registration-requirements/srm/domestic- use/eng/1320626671141/1320626734953

“SRM are certain cattle tissues capable of transmitting BSE. There is no human health risk assessment to indicate the absence of human health concerns associated with use of composted SRM domestically. To date, scientific evidence has not been able to demonstrate that composting destroys prions. Although domestic use would pose a negligible risk to livestock, there is a potential risk to humans via direct ingestion of the compost or of compost particles adhered to skin or plant material (e.g. carrots). Another potential route of exposure is by ingestion of prions that have been taken up by plants. It has been proven that bacteria are readily taken up by some plants (e.g. E. coli in lettuce) thus the uptake of prions by plants cannot be precluded or dismissed at this time “ [CFIA claims their actions are “guided by science-based evidence and a commitment to protect public health.” ] [Uptake of sludge biosolids pathogens, prions and pollutants by plants, vegetation, etc. http://sludgevictims.com/plants/uptake.html

February, 2011 WEST VIRGINIA http://www.wvpubcast.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=18710 WV DNR says chronic wasting disease is spreading. “One is through the transfer of bodily fluids, particularly saliva at places where hunters leave bait. Deer can also pick it up by eating vegetation that contains the infected materials, called prions. Prions are composed of proteins that do the harm to the animal’s brain.”

Further, cervid activity concentrated along fences may lead to accumulation of CWD prions in adjacent soil and vegetation. Wire fences would provide no barrier to wind- borne or water-borne infectious materials, and potentially contaminated vegetation might be available for consumption through fences. Because CWD in farmed cervids has been implicated in contemporaneous outbreaks of CWD in wild populations (Williams et al. 2002), potential for transmission along fences warrants further study.”

Livestock, wildlife/cervids and children eat dirt, increasing the risk of oral infection. Sludge/soil particles may cling to crops, particularly fresh vegetables “fertilized” with Class A sludge/biosolids “compost”. Dust and airborne pathogens blowing off sludged fields may be inhaled and swallowed. Dr. Joel Pedersen, et al, found that prions bind to soil, become 680 times more infectious, and can survive in soil up to three years ( 2007) http://pathogens.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=getdocument&doi=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030093

Just as prion infected meat caused the mad cow/vCreutzfeldt Jakob outbreak in the UK, – the source of US prion diseases, including the Alzheimer’s epidemic (6 million victims, new case every 69 seconds) may also be bad meat. A major issue is the high level of infectivity of human and animal prions in sludge An infectious dose is believed to be less than .001 gram (one milligram) – but it may be smaller: “DYING FOR A HAMBURGER – MODERN MEAT PROCESSING AND THE EPIDEMIC OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE” – JULY 2005 -Dr. Murray Waldman coroner for the City of Toronto and on staff at University of Toronto and Marjorie Lamb, Toronto, writer, broadcaster, and author of several books. Excerpt: PAGE 143 –

“HOW DANGEROUS ARE PRIONS? “The degree of infectivity in tissues such as brain is staggering. In experimental animals, one gram (about one-thirtieth of an ounce) of brain contains an amount of prions sufficient to infect well over one billion individuals.” Research focusing on inactivation of human prions in sewage sludge biosolids may be inadequate to accurately measure the risks if rodent prions are used instead of actual human prions. What elevated level of infectivity can human sludge prions attain if they are added to soil which increases their infectivity by 680 times, considering that human prions can be also be 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than mouse or hamster prions. (Prusiner, S., DeArmond, S., et als ) http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/short/80/1/322

The inactivation of prions in brain homogenates and those bound to stainless steel wires was evaluated by using bioassays in transgenic mice. sCJD prions were more than 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than Sc237 prions, demonstrating that inactivation procedures validated on rodent prions cannot be extrapolated to inactivation of human prions.”

Rodent-passaged prion strains are widely used in prion research. While these have been invaluable for understanding prion biology, great care must be taken in extrapolating any characteristics of these prions back to the original species and strain from which they were derived. ‘. We also found that BSE prions are 10- and 1,000,000-fold more resistant to inactivation than sCJD or hamster Sc237 prions, respectively. The hamster Sc237 strain is identical to the 263K strain used by other investigators [27],[28].

Our studies contend that prion inactivation procedures must be validated by bioassays against the prion strain for which they are intended to be used.” “In conclusion, we have quantified the relative resistance to inactivation of four prion strains from different species. Cattle BSE prions appear to be the most resistant strain studied. In comparison, human sCJD prions are approximately 10-fold less resistant to inactivation by SDS at neutral or acidic pH, or by heat alone. Mouse 301V prions are 100- to 1,000-fold less resistant, and hamster Sc237 prions are up to 1,000,000-fold less resistant to inactivation.

As shown by our findings, prion inactivation based on rodent-passaged prion strains may not be effective against the naturally occurring strains for which they were developed http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1000206 http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20091310-19987-2.html

“The human prion is resistant to both heat and chemicals and is reported to be up to a hundred thousand times more difficult to deactivate than the animal form of infective agent which causes well known diseases in cattle, such as mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep. “Dr. Charles Weissmann, et al, Scripps Research Institute, Florida, found that prions are capable of evolution, mutation, adaptive change, including drug resistance, and reproduction.(2009 and 2012)

Considering the vast multiplicity of mammalian prion strains, and considering the heterogeneous mixture of pathogens, chemicals, human and animal prions in sewage sludge, what are the consequences of livestock and deer (cervids) eating the infected soil, sludge and vegetation? Are animals at risk from ingesting human prions? How many have already been infected? It is well known that bacteria and viruses evolve and mutate in sludge and become even more antibiotic resistant. Do human and animal prions mutate in sludge and create more virulent strains ? How many of the 6 million AD victims, not to mention PD, sCJD, FTD and other prion disease victims, were infected by exposure to tainted meat or other sources?

About 10 percent of neurodegenerative diseases are due to heredity. Prion diseases are caused primarily by ingesting the prions – whether from contaminated feed, tainted meat/hamburger or vegetation grown in prion infected soil and/or sludge biosolids. Genetic differences in humans and animals may determine-out of those exposed- who gets infected and who does not. The human pathways of risk are venison from Chronic Wasting Disease infected deer, and hamburger made from aging, asymptomatic dairy cows infected with Bovine Amyloidoic Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) mad cow [Three out of four US mad cows were infected with the “atypical” BASE strain of mad cow.] Old dairy cows are ending up UNTESTED in huge industrial mixing vats of hamburger, each containing meat from 50 to 100 animals from multiple states and two to four countries. http://www.organicconsumers.org/madcow/burger21904.cfm

“. . . a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing (in Europe, not US) in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed. Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases. http://www.neuroprion.org/en/np-neuroprion.html

“TESTING After the third US mad cow was found, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced in March 2007 it was reducing its national Mad Cow testing and tracking programs by 90 percent. The USDA reduced its cattle-testing level to 40,000 cattle per year down from an average of about 360,000 cattle. Only 5000 “downers” and 3D/4D high risk animals out of the 40,000 total will be tested: “Samples will be collected from renderers and 3D/4D facilities, with a quota set at 5,000 samples’ http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/content/printable_version/fs_BSE_ongoing_vs.pdf ]

The remaining 35,000 animals to be tested annually out of the 37 million slaughtered, will be asymptomatic and will not be obviously “high risk”. ] In December, 2011, my granddaughter received her BS from the U/RI College of Nursing, Hannah is now employed as a registered nurse. She has not come across even one medical professional who is familiar with the issue of AD and prions. Are there any special precautions she and others should take in dealing with AD/prion disease patients? Since there can be prions in saliva and mucus which make up coughs and sneezes, and aerosols have been named a prion pathway of risk, are there precautions that should be taken for airborne and droplet exposure ? Should health care publications, including but not limited to the following, be updated to include AD? http://infectioncontrol.ucsfmedicalcenter.org/HTML/ICMANUAL/Sec4- 11_Human_Prion_Disease_2005.pdf

UCSF Revised 4/01, 9/01, 11/01, 3/02, 5/02, 12/02, 4/04 Infection Control Manual Reviewed 10/05 INFECTION CONTROL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED OR CONFIRMED HUMAN PRION DISEASE (e.g., Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [CJD])* *This is a living document which will be updated as more information becomes known. I. PURPOSE: To define precautions for handling materials from any patient with suspected or confirmed prion disease and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At UCSF, the most commonly-seen human prion diseases include: sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), and Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). http://www.optometry.co.uk/uploads/exams/articles/cet_14_oct_2011_armstrong.pdf

OPTOMETRY Visual Aspects of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease “However, they may, and have been reported to, cause visual symptoms whilst the possible transfer of prions through optometric procedures has also been the subject of much debate. This article discusses the relevance of prions to optometric practice.” http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/CreutzfeldtJakobDisease/AbnormalPrionProteinPrevalenceStudies/

Should UK Health Protection Agency documents like this one be updated to include AD ? http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/journalarticle?Article_ID=814446

Nursing Care of the Person With Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Clarissa Rentz MSN, APRN-BC Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing “There is also an in-depth explanation of the sporadic form’s pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features, disease course, infection control guidelines, and treatment, as well as a full discussion of the challenging nursing care issues from diagnosis to death.” http://memory.ucsf.edu/cjd/sites/all/files/pdf/MAC_RPD_Primer.pdf

University of California San Francisco Department of Neurology Memory and Aging Center Primer on Human Prion Disease Your patient came to the UCSF Memory and Aging Center website looking for information about Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (CJD), other prion diseases or rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). If your patient exhibits the features of an RPD, here are some helpful points we like to consider when narrowing the diagnosis.

Should medical professionals, including doctors and nurses, be alerted that Alzheimer’s is a transmissible prion disease, and extra precautions should be taken to prevent exposure and infection ? Should a beef or dairy farmer who puts his animals out to graze be warned that the sewage sludge biosolids he is spreading as “fertilizer” may contain infectious human and animal prions ? Should prion researchers offer guidance to the US EPA, the CDC, and USDA about the potential risks to human and animal health from allowing grazing animals to ingest human and animal prions in infected sludge biosolids, and soil containing sludge biosolids? Are humans and animals at risk from ingesting plants, grasses, vegetables fertilized with prion infected sludge biosolids? In the July 3, 2010 issue of VETERINARY RECORD, Dr.Joel Pedersen, University of Wisconsin stated: “Finally, the disposal of sludge was considered to represent the greatest risk of spreading (prion) infectivity to other premises.”

Respectfully submitted, Helane Shields, PO Box 1133, Alton, NH 003809 603-875-3842 hshields@tds.net

http://alzheimers-prions.com/ ALZHEIMER’S and PRIONS Sewage treatment and composting do not inactivate human and animal prions in sewage sludge “biosolids”: http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/PRIONS-SEWAGETREATMENT.pdf ALZHEIMER’S and PARKINSON’S DISEASES ARE transmissible prion/protein misfolding/conformational disorders — Link to March 2011 update, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) – many descriptions – misfolding prion/protein diseases – conformational disorders – amyloidosis – tauopathy – proteinopathies . . . http://sludgevictims.com/pathogens/ALZHEIMERPRIONDISEASE2011UPDATE.pdf SCIENTISTS CONFIRM THAT ALZHEIMER’S IS A PRION DISEASE. http://sludgevictims.com/pathogens/ALZHEIMERS_is_a_prion_disease.pdf

2011, Oct. update: SCIENTISTS CONFIRM ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (AD) IS A TRANSMISSIBLE, INFECTIOUS, CONTAGIOUS PRION DISEASE – the human strain of Mad Cow Disease. http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/CLAUDIO-SOTO-CONFIRMS-AD-IS-PRION-DISEASE-OCT-2011.pdf

JUNE 22, 2012 Nobel Laureate Stanley Prusiner, UCSF, and colleagues, confirm that Alzheimer’s is a transmissible prion disease like Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cows and Creutzfeldt Jakob in humans, which are caused by misfolding proteins.” http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/JUNE2012PRUSINER-ETAL- ALZHEIMERSISAPRIONDISEASE.pdf

EPA NATIONAL WATER RESEARCH COMPENDIUM 2009-2014 lists PRIONS eight times as an EMERGING CONTAMINANT of concern in sewage sludge “biosolids” , water and manure: http://www.sludgevictims.com/prions/PRIONS-EPA-EMERGINGCONTAMINANTSINSLUDGEBIO. pdf “PRIONS” ARE PATHOGENS, But the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the waste industry including SYNAGRO, promote Class A sludge “biosolids” compost for spreading on home vegetable gardens, and parks, playgrounds, and ballfields where children with their hand-to-mouth behavior, will be playing. Even though they know Class A sludge “biosolids” contains infectious prions, the EPA/waste industry nevertheless promotes this contaminated waste as being “pathogen free” or “sterile”: http://www.sludgevictims.com/prions/PATHOGENFREECLASSASLUDGE.pdf

PRIONS IN COMPOSTING Postings of Helane Shields to Composting Council discussion group in 2006 on issue of infectious human and animal prions in both Class A and Class B sewage sludge biosolids, with particular regard to the fact that EPA pathogen reduction measures under Part 503 do NOT inactivate prions . . . . . http://sludgevictims.com/pathogens/prions-composting.html

“EPA recommends Class A sludge biosolids on home vegetable gardens. Class A sludge is not pathogen free – it can contain E. Coli bacteria which survive thermal sludge treatment – AND it contains infectious human and animal prions which are NOT inactivated by any sewage/sludge treatment.” http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/VEGETABLECLASSASLUDGE.pdf

“Plants, vegetables, grasses, forages uptake sludge pollutants, pathogens and prions” http://sludgevictims.com/plants/uptake.html

Sludge use on food — Smart Guide http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/SLUDGEUSE-FOODPRODUCTION.pdf

Helane Shields Email to US EPA and WEF – human and animal prions in Class A sewage sludge biosolids compost which is promoted for home use as pathogen free http://sludgevictims.com/prions-human-EPA-letter.html

“PRIONS” ARE PATHOGENS — The Prion Diseases http://sludgevictims.com/prions-are-pathogens.html Prions in intestines and feces http://sludgevictims.com/prions-intestines-feces.html “Human prions in public sewers, autopsies, etc.” http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/PRIONS-BLOOD-FUNERALDIRECTOR-EMBALMER.pdf “Human prions in public sewers, embalmers, funeral directors, etc. ” http://alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/PRIONS-AUTOPSIES-MEDICALINSTRUMENTS.pdf

“Young prion disease victims – hunters, venison eaters and others – are they victims of the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) epidemic which is spreading throughout the US? The following states and Canadian provinces are designated CWD positive: Alberta, Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Saskatchewan, Texas and CWD recently jumped the border into Iowa. Alzheimers and Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) are sister prion diseases in humans, just as Mad Cow and Chronic Wasting Disease are in animals. ” http://www.alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/CDC-PRIONDISEASEVICTIMS-.pdf ‘SCIENTISTS FIND PRIONS SURVIVE IN SLUDGE “BIOSOLIDS” . . . and PRION INFECTIVITY AMPLIFIED BY SOIL” http://alzheimers-prions.com/pdf/Dr-JoelPedersen_etal-prionsinsoilandsludgebiosolids.pdf Persistence of Pathogenic Prion Protein during Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPTSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment. http://sludgevictims.com/pdf_files/PRIONSINSEWAGEANDSLUDGE_PEDERSEN_ETAL.pdf

Inflammation and prions in Urine http://alzheimers-prions.com/sitebuilder/images/header-0-inactive-86958.png http://alzheimers-prions.com/sitebuilder/images/header-1-inactive-87378.png http://alzheimers-prions.com/sitebuilder/images/header-2-inactive-87488.png

Adriano Aguzzi of the University Hospital of Zurich: “Further research by the team showed that, if inflammation is induced in any excretory organ of the body, prions are excreted in whatever substance the organ excretes. ” http://sludgevictims.com/pdf_files/PRIONSINURINE.pdf

Transmission and Detection of Prions in Feces Oral exposure to prion-tainted blood, urine, saliva, and feces has been suggested as the mode of transmission of CWD and scrapie among herbivores susceptible to these prion diseases http://sludgevictims.com/pdf_files/PRIONSINFECES.pdf

Downers — Proportion of Animals Rendered Among Downers and Those That Die Prior to Slaughter excluding calves =1.9 million – USDA claims only 200,000 downers a year – see USDA/APHIS documents revealing 1.9 million downers each year: http://sludgevictims.com/prions/USDAAPHISSCANNUMBEROFDOWNERS.pdf http://sludgevictims.com/prions/downers.html

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